half duplex – CSMA/CD: minimum frame size for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

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Due to collision detection requirements, the collision domain for Fast Ethernet was significantly reduced: only two class-ii repeaters are allowed between any two nodes (or a single class-i repeater). Also, all Fast Ethernet variants are of the link-segment type (using duplex signaling with twisted pair or fiber), allowing for faster collision detection.

While half-duplex operation was defined for Gigabit Ethernet (with a single repeater), repeaters failed to emerge – switches had become so cheap that the restrictions with half-duplex operation didn’t make sense any more.

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